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Only when shouted out with a prolonged (a:] docs it mean a call for help in dire circumstances.) See also 60.2a (p. compound noun a noun formed by joining together two or more words: das Biiro 'office', die Maschine 'machine': die Buromaschine 'office machine'. with a modal verb*: Wir miissen jetzt arbeiten 'We have to work now.' inseparable verb a verb* with an inseparable prefix: vergeben 'to forgive'. In written German, all nouns begin with a capital letter: der Brief 'letter', die Tiefe 'depth', das Schreiben '(act of) writing'. number a word denoting whether a noun* or verb* is singular or plural: Ein Hund 'one dog', but zwei Hunde 'two dogs'.
is not necessarily understood as a request for rescue but as a casual greeting. For example, using the expression Schwein haben instead of Gluck haben for 'to be lucky'. comparative the form of the adjective* or adverb* used to compare things: Eine schwierigere Aufgabe 'A more difficult exercise'. Dieser Bus fahrt in die Stadtmitte 'This bus goes to the town centre'. The infinitive is also used in particular constructions, e.g. noun a word which names things, processes or concepts. (I'm just going (in)to the school grounds with the dog.) See also 32 (p.
No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. ix INTRODUCTION A key factor in a book of this kind is the description of register. (See also direct speech*.) German uses a subjunctive* form of the verb* xvii GLOSSARY for this: e.g.
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Modern German grammar : a practical guide / Bill Dodd . The term register denotes the relationship between a speaker or writer and the person he or she is speaking or writing to. an original sentence such as Ich bin krank 'I am ill' can be reported as Er sagte, er sei krank 'He said he was ill'.
Attracting attention when a person is busy Darf ich nial kurz stdren. A relative clause is a subordinate clause introduced by a relative pronoun (usually der/die/das) and relates back to a preceding noun* or pronoun*: Das ist die Schule, die wir friiher besuchten 'That is the school we used to go to'. completion of the verb the phrase or phrases which complete the meaning of the verb*, such as an accusative object*, a dative object* or a prepositional phrase*: Er klopfte an der Tiir 'He knocked on the door'. modal verb a verb* which can be used with another verb to modify the kind of statement being made: Ich kaufe es 'I buy it' can be modified to Ich will es kaufen 'I want to buy it', Ich muss es kaufen 'I have to buy it', etc. (Compare Er hangte das Bild iiber das Bett.) The picture was hanging over the bed. (I sat down between my brother and his wife.) o Jeden Sonntag gehen wir auf dem Schulgeldnde spazieren. their) notice' sich nahern 'to approach' nutzen/nxitzen 'to be of use' passen 'to fit/to suit' passieren 'to happen to' schaden 'to harm' trauen 'to trust' vertrauen 'to have trust in' vor'kommen 'to seem (to sb.)' Ich habe ihm nicht geantwortet. Here the section in bold italics is the subordinate clause, while what precedes it is the main clause. irregular verb a type of strong verb* which changes its stem in the du and the er/sie/es forms of the present tense, e.g. There is often no direct English equivalent: Das hast du ja selber gesagt 'You said that yourself (after all)'. This includes: an 'on/at/by' auf 'on' (a horizontal surface) hinter 'behind' in 'in' neben 'near/next to' iiber 'over/above' unter 'under/among' vor 'in front of' zwischen 'between' Das Bild hing iiber dem Bett. (Compare Ich setzte mich zwischen meinen Bruder und seine Frau.) I was sitting between my brother and his wife. The most common include: 28 The dative 19 ahneln 'to resemble' antworten 'to answer' begegnen 'to meet' danken 'to thank' dienen 'to serve' drohen 'to threaten' entsprechen 'to correspond to' folgen 'to follow' gehorchen 'to obey' gelten 'to be meant for/aimed at' geniigen 'to suffice' geschehen 'to happen to' glauben 'to believe' gleichen 'to be like' gratulieren 'to congratulate' helfen 'to help' kiindigen 'to dismiss (sb.)/give (sb. it cannot stand alone, and is GLOSSARY usually introduced by a conjunction*: Er weifi doch schon, dass ich krank bin 'He already knows that I'm ill'. ' intransitive verb a verb* which needs only a subject* to form a basic sentence: Sie schlaft 'She is asleep.' See also transitive verb*. mixed verb a category of verbs*, small in number, that combine aspects of weak verbs* and strong verbs*. modal particles words which signal the speaker's attitude towards what he or she is saying and help to involve the listener in what is being said. CASE SYSTEM 19 The prepositions entgegen 'against/contrary to' and gegeniiber 'opposite' usually follow the noun, as does nach in the sense of 'according to': Sie wohnt dem Stadion gegeniiber. 19.5 After certain prepositions when rest or movement at a place is implied. Notice the abbreviated prepositional forms: an dem = am bei dem = beim in dem = im von dem = vom zu dem = zum zu der = zur o 19.6 See 1 8.3 (p. With several verbs, the vast majority of which only ever have a dative object. Only those expressions which clearly stand out from this general polite usage have been marked for register. The subject agrees with the verb in number*: Die Maschine lauft 'The machine is running', Die Maschinen laufen 'The machines are running'. subjunctive mood a form of the verb* used to express an action, process or state which is not actually in existence at the time of speaking. tense a finite form of the verb* (see finite verb*) which usually expresses whether the action takes place in the present, past or future. verbal prefix a prefix added to a verb* in order to create a new verb with a different meaning. Expressions marked as 'informal' are examples of casual or colloquial usage; this can include slang or vulgar terms, but the latter are always indicated separately. The subjunctive is mainly used in reported speech* and in conditional sentences (see conditional*) such as Ich konnte morgen kommen (, wenn du Zeit hast) 'I could come tomorrow (if you have time)'. superlative the form of an adjective used to denote the greatest intensity of a quality: Das war die beste Losung. Verbal prefixes may be separable (ankommen 'to arrive') or inseparable (vergeben 'to forgive'). zero declension also sometimes called the 'strong declension': the pattern of adjective endings before a noun when there is no preceding ein or der: italianischer Wein 'Italian wine', deutsches Bier 'German beer'.
ein*laden 'to invite' • as the above example shows, an asterisk indicates a separable prefix to a verb • the slash symbol (/) indicates an alternative word or expression • -r, -e, -s denote der, die, das, respectively; noun plurals are indicated via brackets, e.g. Approximate versions of German pronunciation are given in square brackets. (See also 59.7 on spelling reforms.) 1 1.1 Vowels The quality of a vowel depends on whether it is stressed or unstressed (see 4).